“Research on a CBA” Overview

Click HERE for a “pdf” version of this Webpage

The CBA is firmly grounded in research, as evidenced in our discussions about the research that supports the CBA’s four foundational constructs and associated sub-constructs. This research demonstrates that motivation, self-direction, self-knowledge and relationships are strongly related to students’ academic achievement and well-being. Based on these findings, and since these four constructs are within the purview of school counseling programs, we are proposing that these constructs should be the primary filters for designing, delivering and evaluating PreK-12 school counseling programs.

Research also has another role to perform, which is to use rigorous methodologies to determine the validity and reliability of the CBA in terms of its impact on students and the ability of school counselors to embrace and fulfill their role and job responsibilities. This function is performed through research studies conducted on the CBA.

This section will summarize the studies as they are conducted and the results published.
Thus far, two studies have been published, both focusing on a single pilot program but from different perspectives. We discuss each of them (follow the links near the bottom of the Sidebar under the “Research on a CBA Overview” heading. Links to the actual articles are provided on their respective webpages.

Article 1: “A Grant Project to Initiate School Counselors’ Development of a Multi-Tiered System of Supports Based on Social-Emotional Data”

This article examined the results of a three-year pilot program that was part of an Elementary and Secondary School Counseling Program (ESSCP) federal grant conducted in four elementary schools in a Northeast United States urban-suburban school district. This study focused on the efficacy of the CBA as a framework for delivering the school counseling program in a Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS), and the results of using the CBA’s Protective Factors Index (PFI) assessment instrument for gathering and reporting data on students’ social-emotional learning (SEL). In addition, the role of school counselors as data-based decision makers and leaders in data discussions was discussed.

Article 2: “Factor Analysis of the PFI”

This study was a Factor Analysis of the Protective Factors Index (PFI) assessment instrument which was used to collect data on elementary students’ social-emotional development and report the results on students’ academic report cards. This study determined the PFI to be a promising instrument for collecting social-emotional data. The study is an initial effort to demonstrate evidence of the PFI’s validity and reliability as a universal instrument.